2. Member Cities
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Member Cities

View all Member Cities


Republic of Ghana ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Presently the capital of the Republic of Ghana, Accra was the capital of the Gold Coast, a British colony, from 1876 until 1957. Since its founding, the city has served as a center of European Africa and has also played a major role in African ethnic activities since the late 19th century.


Alba Iulia

Romania ~ Member of the LHC since 2016 ~

Alba Iulia is the other Capital of Romania, a place full of history and endowed with the largest Vauban Citadel in South East Europe – Alba Carolina Citadel. Its origins date back for over 2000 years of continuous history encompassing the Daco-Roman eras, the Medieval and Baroque eras and ultimately the modern era. It is the place where modern Romania was born and where the national day of Romania is being celebrated each year on December 1st. In short, Alba Iulia is the most interesting capital you have never heard of!



Arab Republic of Egypt ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Alexandria was named after Alexander the Great, who ordered the foundation of the city in 332 B.C. Alexandria, often referred to as "The Bride of the Mediterranean," is the largest port in Egypt and the headquarters for the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office for the World Health Organization.



Democratic People's Republic of Algeria ~ Member of the LHC since 1997 ~

The capital city of Algeria is located on the Mediterranean coast, set against forested mountains and overlooking a bay. The modern city of Algiers is formed of two parts. The lower part is the French-built new town with wide boulevards, and all the cultural trappings of colonialism like an opera house, cathedrals, theatres, museums. The Casbah or old city forms the upper part of Algiers, replete with labyrinthine passageways and a 16th century walled fortress.



Kingdom of the Netherland ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Amsterdam's origins date back to the early 13th century, when it was founded along the bank of the river Amstel as a trading port. Through a prosperous and expanding center throughout the middle Ages,, Amsterdam's world-wide commercial relations and trade activities in the 17th century marked the zenith of its wealth and power.



Republic of Korea ~ Member of the LHC since 2004 ~

Andong is located in the Northern part of Gyeongsangbuk-do in Korea. Andong has 5000 years of history and tradition including well-preserved ancient Buddhist, Confucian, and Protestant cultures, which uniquely exist together. In 1999, Queen Elizabeth II of England found Andong the most suitable place to visit in Korea to discover the traditional life and breath of our nation’s long history.



Turkey ~ Member of the LHC since 2011 ~

Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after Istanbul. Centrally located in Anatolia, Ankara is an important commercial and industrial city. Ankara is a very old city with various Hittite, Phrygian, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman archaeological sites. The hill which overlooks the city is crowned by the ruins of the old castle, which adds to the picturesqueness of the view. There are many finely preserved remains of them.



Hellenic Republic ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Athens is the political, economic and cultural center of Greece and hosts nearly all of the country's governmental activities. Athens contains important archaeological sites reflecting the rich cultural heritage of the city and is home to seven major universities, 26 museums, two opera houses, 23 theaters and 51 movie theaters.


Bad Ischl

Republic of Austria ~ Member of the LHC since 2010 ~

Bad Ischl is a spa town lies in the southern part of Upper Austria. The city became a fashionable spa resort with notable guests in the first half of the 19th century, when medical science discovered the effects on health by the local salt water. This led to the growing wealth of the place, still documented today in countless historical buildings.



Republic of Iraq ~ Member of the LHC since 1997 ~

Founded in AD762 by Abu Jafar al Mansur, the city of Baghdad was originally built on the west bank of the Tigris River. Circular Walls enclosed the city and although its original name was Madinat al Salam ( City of Peace ), it was more popularly known as the Round City. At the city's center were the caliph's palace and the grand mosque. November 15th is designated as Day of Baghdad. Festival is held on this day to celebrate the anniversary of establishment of the city.



Commonwealth of Australia ~ Member of the LHC since 1999 ~

Gold was first discovered in Ballarat in 1851and 20,000 miners had arrived from all over the world. In 1854, a bloody battle known as the Eureka Stockade took place between protesting miners and Government soldiers. This was caused by the unfair treatment meted out to miners by the colonial administration. The miners in the end did achieve political rights and freedoms. Today, you can immerse yourself in the city's history.

The Host City of the 10th
World Conference of Historical Cities in 2006



Spain ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Barcelona constitutes an important economic and commercial nucleus which has had an influence throughout Spain and the Mediterranean basin. During its 2,000 years of history, the city has seen the passing of many civilizations whose architectural and artistic remains live together in perfect harmony with the latest trends in architecture, urbanism, art and design.

The Host City of the 3rd
World Conference of Historical Cities in 1991



French Republic ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Bordeaux's history as a Roman province, then a region long covered by England and a major French port has supported its historical identity as a city of international repute. As a city of commerce and world-wide center in the wine trade, Bordeaux is also home to a range of thriving economic activities that combine with modernity.



United States of America ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Founded in 1630 by Puritans from Great Britain, Boston is one of America's best preserved historical cities. Due to its unusually high concentration of excellent educational institutions, the city has long been a major American center for an impressive range of electronics, space and medical related industries.



Slovak Republic ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Although the origin of Bratislava dates back to prehistoric times, present-day Bratislava is a modern city with an active social scene. It is the seat of key central institutions and the center for culture, trade, services and education. To preserve the historical splendor for which Bratislava is so renowned, the core of the city is now undergoing massive restoration.



Kingdom of Belgium ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Brussels was founded in 979 and quickly grew to become a place of commercial and political powers. Early on, the city became renowned throughout Europe for its scarlet-colored wool and its richly adorned tapestries. Though Brussels was damaged by the Second World War, it remains one of Europe's most beautiful cities and continues to remain as an influential force in the European Community.



Kingdom of Hungary ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

The faithfully preserved historic core of Budapest is characterized by numerous fine edifices and urban structures of three original towns. Budapest's unique charm derives from the city's ideal natural location and rich architectural heritage. The Castle District, the seat of Hungarian kings, is one of Europe's best preserved royal seats.



Republic of Turkey ~ Member of the LHC since 2010 ~

Bursa is the only city in Turkey characterized with the word Green located in the north-west of Turkey and is considered as a bridge between Asia and Europe. Bursa has a strong industry, pioneered by automotive, machinery and foodstuff sectors. Bursa is the treasury of history; It is a city proud of its cultural heritage thanks to many monuments from Byzantine, Ottoman and Republican periods.

The Host City of the 16th
World Conference of Historical Cities in 2018



Republic of Korea ~ Member of the LHC since 2006 ~

Buyeo is located in southern part of Chungnam prefecture, and used to be called “Soburi” and was changed its name to Buyeo in the Unified Silla Kingdom. Guessing from the Songguk-ri prehistoric dwelling site, Buyeo is well known for the home of traditional culture. Buyeo was the home of beautiful culture and art which prospered during the reign of 6 kings over a period of 123 years.


Cape Town

South Africa ~ Member of the LHC since 2011 ~

Cape Town is the second-most populous city in South Africa. As the seat of the National Parliament, it is also the legislative capital of the country. Located on the shore of Table Bay, Cape Town was originally developed by the Dutch East India Company as a victualling (supply) station for Dutch ships sailing to Eastern Africa, India, and the Far East. Jan van Riebeeck's arrival on 6 April 1652 established the first permanent European settlement in South Africa.



Republic of Colombia ~ Member of the LHC since 2013 ~

Cartagena is a fantastic city that guards the secrets of history in its walls, balconies, buildings and narrow cobbled streets. Declared part of the UNESCO World Heritage in 1984, Cartagena encapsulates all the charm of Spanish colonial architecture, the republic period and today, the attraction of diverse cultural festivals, exotic scenery and the warmth of the Atlantic Ocean.



People's Republic of China ~ Member of the LHC since 2006 ~

Chengdu is the capital city of Sichuan Province and locates in the west part of Chengdu plain. Chengdu has been playing an important role in the field of politics, transportation and industry as the huge cosmopolitan (12,300K㎡).Chengdu plain is turned into the land of abundance with temperate climate and fertile soil.



Ukraine ~ Member of the LHC since 2010 ~

Chernivtsi is a city in the south-west of Ukraine and is about 50 km away from the border to Romania and the Republic of Moldova. Disposition on the crossroads of the trade route and states’ boundary crossings had greatly influenced the city development. Historically, as a cultural and architectural center, the City was even dubbed Little Vienna, Jerusalem upon the Prut, or the European Alexandria.


Chiang Mai

Kingdom of Thailand ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Located in northern Thailand, Chiang Mai is the second largest city in the country. The deep-rooted culture of Chiang Mai stems from the fact that the city was the capital of Lanna Thai, which dates back to the 13th century, the same period as Thailand's first capital, Sukhothai.



Federal Republic of Germany ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Cologne, the oldest of the major German cities, began as the town of the Ubiis in 38 B.C. The city developed along the Rhine River at around the river's halfway point. Cologne is famous as a sightseeing destination and cultural center. The Cologne Cathedral is one of Europe's finest standing examples of Gothic style architecture and the most visited building in Germany.



Romania ~ Member of the LHC since 2009 ~

Constanta is located in the south-eastern extremity of Romania and is the center of economy and administration of Constanta County. The city has the largest port on the Black Sea and the fourth largest port in Europe. Constanta, the old Greek citadel Tomis, has an impressive history of 2500 years.



Spain ~ Member of the LHC since 1996 ~

This city's history is over 2,000 years old. The Romans made it capital of the rich province of the Baetica; with the Moslems it turned into the principal city and center of the Occidental Caliphate. Different cultures that meet in its grounds along the centuries enrich it. The Mosque Aljama, with a Christian cathedral, crowns the jewel made up by the white and mottled groups of dwellings of its historical center. This valuable setting was declared World Heritage City by the UNESCO in 1994.



Republic of Poland ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Since its early history as a Slavic village, Cracow became a key cultural link between Eastern and Western Europe in the 10th century. Today many medieval buildings remain in the center of the city, the most impressive of which is Wawel Castle, a Romanesque-Gothic castle. Another very important city monument is the Jagiellonian University complex where the astronomer Copernicus studied in the 15th century.

The Host City of the 6th
World Conference of Historical Cities in 1998



Republic of Ecuador ~ Member of the LHC since 2015 ~

Santa Ana de los Ríos de Cuenca is located on an inter-Andean valley on Southern Ecuador (441 km south of Quito), at an elevation of 2.535 m.a.s.l. It enjoys typically warm weather, with an average temperature of 17°C. Its population is of approximately 500.000 inhabitants and its surface area is of 15.730 hectares. The peculiar features of its soil and the circumstances of later gradual miscegenation printed a unique idiosyncrasy on its inhabitants, who were carving and forging the current Cuenca over the years: it is the economic and cultural center of a rich area of Ecuador, an Andean and tropical country at the same time, characterized by contrasts and wonders. Its condition of average size city is another factor that contributes to have each visitor promising to return or, even better, they decide to stay and live here, since the city has the latest technology concerning information and electronics, a good financial and banking system, cybercafés, bars, discotheques, modern hotel infrastructure, restaurants of all kinds, etc. As a World Heritage Site, Cuenca is a city open to diversity and folklore, and its location is great for any visitor who wants to transport to the different facets of an ancient culture in our modern society; this is a city to live better.



Republic of Peru ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Situated in a mountain valley at 3.4 kilometers above sea level, Cusco is considered the oldest living city of the Americas, with the first urban structures erected there some 3,000 years ago. Cusco is today a modern yet ancient city that has maintained monuments of its glorious past as proof of its greatness.



French Republic ~ Member of the LHC since 2004 ~

The Dukedom of Bourgogne went to extremes of luxury between 14 and 15 century. This Dukedom had developed its own unique politics and culture since 11 century. Dijon is the distinctive city with a style of its own, where was the central city of the Dukedom of Bourgogne, who opposed to the French royal family in Paris. Still Dijon is in the middle of the Bourgogne area and located about 300 Km south-east of Paris.



Ireland ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Dublin is as sophisticated as any other metropolis but it still remains as intimate as a village and as friendly as a pub. Medieval, Georgian and modern architecture provide a romantic backdrop to the city's friendly, bustling port area. Dublin is also home to a great literary tradition and contemporary music.



People's Republic of China ~ Member of the LHC since 2017 ~

Dujiangyan, with an area of 1,208 square kilometers, is located in southwest China’s Sichuan Province. Selected as a World Cultural Heritage Site and a World Natural Heritage Site by UNESCO, Dujiangyan is renowned for namely its over 2,200-year old dam-free Dujiangyan Irrigation System, the beautiful and tranquil Mt. Qingcheng, the area’s over 1,800-year-old history of Taoism (the only native religion in China), and adorable giant pandas. Dujiangyan is endowed with a favorable climate and an advantageous geographical location.



United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Edinburgh Castle and the city's medieval Old Town, with its streets vennels running off the Royal Mile spine, dominate the skyline. Separated from the Old Town by a valley containing Princes Street Garden is the Georgian New Town, the world's most extensive example of romantic classicism.



Kingdom of Morocco ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Fez was established in the 8th century by Idriss I. In the early 9th century, Idriss II made the city the capital of Morocco's longest Islamic dynasty and added royal palaces, mosques and a castle wall around the city. At present, Fez is characterized by the bustling energy of Fez Jedid, new palaces, beautiful government buildings and an ancient castle.



Republic of Italy ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Florence is the capital of the central Italian region of Tuscany. The name of the city derives from the old Italian "Fiorenza", meaning City of Flowers. Florence is famous as the city where the greatest age of the Renaissance was established by the rule of the Medici family between the 15th and 17th centuries.

The Host City of the 2nd
Conference of World Historical Cities in 1988.



Swiss Confederation ~ Member of the LHC since 2004 ~

Geneva is situated on a hill at the end of Lake Leman, at the mouth of the Rhone. In Gallic period, a citadel dominated the hill, with a bridge spanning the Rhone, supported on the island in the middle of the river. In the year 58 BC, the emperor Julius Caesar caused this bridge to be cut, in order to stop the Helvetii from emigrating to the south-west of Gaul. Traces of villas and defensive walls from that period can still be found.



Arab Republic of Egypt ~ Member of the LHC since 2014 ~

Giza is a plateau southwest of modern Cairo which served as the necropolis for the royalty of the Old Kingdom of Egypt. Most famous for the pyramids of Khufu (completed in 2550 BCE), Khafre (2520 BCE), Menkaure (2490 BCE) and the Great Sphinx (built 2500 BCE), recent excavations on the plateau have revealed numerous private tomb complexes and workers' quarters.  GIZA is the third-largest city in Egypt. It is located on the west bank of the Nile, some 20 km southwest of central Cairo. Giza's population is 8 million. Giza has always been a focal point in Egypt's history due to its location in respect to Memphis, the ancient capital. "Mn Nefer" (Memphis, in Greek)—which means "the beautiful wall" in the ancient Egyptian language—was the capital city of the first unified Egyptian state since the days of Pharaoh Narmer.



Republic of Korea ~ Member of the LHC since 2008 ~

Gonju city is located in the southwest of Chungcheong province of South Korea. Beginning from A.D 475 to A.D 538 (64years), it has been keeping its tradition and history as Baekje kingdom for millenary until today. From 1602 A.D, it has enshrined as the capital administration in Chungchung district for 330years by holding its glorious civilization of Baekje's cultural heritage.



United Mexican States ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Though a major center of commerce, industry, transportation and communication, Guadalajara has the atmosphere of an old city and is referred to by some as "the pearl of the west" or "the city of roses." The city's long and varied history is well represented in its buildings, which include many structures done in Baroque and Gothic styles.



Republic of Korea ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

For nearly 1,000 years, from 57 B.C. to 935 A.D., Kyongju was the capital of the Shilla kingdom and flourished as a center of sophisticated culture and government. It is said that the city is like an open-air museum. In the center of the city, the Tumulus Park houses some 20 large and small tombs from the Shilla Dynasty.

The Host City of the 9th
World Conference of Historical Cities in 2005


The Hague

Kingdom of the Netherland ~ Member of the LHC since 1998 ~

Guide to national political direction, The Hague is now playing a greater role than ever in affecting the path of the country and business in the new Europe. Seat of national government, city of diplomacy and international relations, Royal Residence, home to the International Court of Justice, and city in which the world's first peace conference was ever held in 1899, The Hague has long played the role of the unseen fixer.



Socialist Republic of Viet Nam ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

The name of Hanoi means "within the rivers" and is derived from its position at the central point of the delta between the Red River and its tributary, the Day River. During the early part of the 11th century, Viet Nam was united for the first time by the Ly people, who set up their capital at Tanron, a castle town located on the site of present-day Hanoi.



Kingdom of Sweden ~ Member of the LHC since 1996 ~

Helsingborg is beautifully situated at the strait of Oresund between Sweden and Denmark. Its history dates back to the Viking Age, when and up to 1658 the southernmost part of Sweden belonged to Denmark. During that time the castle of Helsingborg (Karnan) was a stronghold for the Danish King. Since then the town has developed into one of the most important ports of Scandinavia and into an industrial, commercial and cultural center as well.



Socialist Republic of Viet Nam ~ Member of the LHC since 2006 ~

Hue is located in central Vietnam on the banks of the Sông Hương (PerfumeRiver), just a few miles west of the South China Sea. It is about 540 km south of the national capital of Hanoi and about 644 km north of Hồ Chí Minh City. There are the royal citadel, emperor's tomb, etc in the center of the historic city.



Romania ~ Member of the LHC since 1996 ~

Iasi, one of the oldest towns in the area, constitutes the cultural capital of Romania and the most important historic, industrial and economic center of Eastern part of the country. Iasi is famous as the city of poetry and great romances. The Town of Seven Hills has more than 200 spots of tourist interest-monuments, museums, memorial houses, parks and public gardens; the tradition interfering with the modernity.



Islamic Republic of Iran ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Historically, Isfahan dates back to ancient times. However, most of its preserved monuments date from the Islamic era when the city was the capital of Iran from the 7th to the17th centuries. Isfahan's numerous cultural treasures and historical splendors comprised of palaces, mosques, churches, bazaars and beautiful bridges, make it one of the most beautiful cities in Asia Minor.



Republic of Turkey ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Istanbul, the only city in the world built on two continents, has an infinite variety of interesting sights and places. Among the many outstanding examples are the Topkapi Palace of the Ottoman Sultans, the St. Irine Museums built by Emperor Constantine in the 4th century and the Sultanahmet Mosque built by the architect Mehmet between 1609-1616.



State of Israel ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Today, Jerusalem is the largest and most populated city in Israel - a fascinating mosaic of different religions and people. This mixture and the city's extraordinary range of historical relics make Jerusalem a major tourist center. Its unique history, historical monuments and archaeological sites make the city one of the world's most important repositories for western and eastern civilization.



Democratic People's Republic of Korea ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Kaesong, with a history of more than 1,000 years, was founded as the capital of Koryo, the first unified state in Korea which lasted for over five centuries. Since ancient times, Kaesong has enjoyed a world-wide reputation as a center of Koryo Insam cultivation. The city boasts an abundance of historical remains, museums, palaces and important tombs.



Japan ~ Member of the LHC since 2013 ~

Kamakura is where the first samurai government was established in Japan. For 150 years from 1180 onwards, Kamakura became the center of Japan in all aspects of politics, diplomacy, and culture. Urban development took advantage of the terrain surrounded by mountains and sea, which made it suitable for defense. Kamakura is still encircled by lush greenery today, and is a town where many items of historical heritage co-exist alongside residents’ everyday lives. (Photograph provided by Kamakura City Tourist Association)



Japan ~ Member of the LHC since 2009 ~

The history of Kanazawa dates back to 420 years ago, when the Kaga clan established a town around Kanazawa castle. Since then, Kanazawa has not been damaged by any war so that the original structure of the town has been preserved and historical buildings still exist today. Also, many traditional cultural activities and crafts have been passed down and developed through the generations.



Islamic Republic of Iran ~ Member of the LHC since 2015 ~

Kashan is an historical, cultural, tourist and beautiful city located between Tehran and Isfahan, with a population over 350,000 in 2015. Archeological discoveries in the Kashan Sialk hillocks show that this region was one of the primary centers of civilization in pre-historic times. The Sialk ziggurat still stands today in the suburbs of Kashan after 7,000 years. The presence of a wide variety of houses, shrines, mosques, historical Bazaar and other historical sites has added to the glory of Kashan. The most important of which are Sialk ancient hills, Fin garden and old houses, carpet washing ceremony at Mashhad Ardehal, Kashan rosewater, Kashan carpet, wonderful desert, Nooshabad underground city, Niasar waterfalls, Qamsar and Barzok rose centers and many more.



Kingdom of Nepal ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters, the valley in which Kathmandu is located is surrounded by green mountains. The abundance of shrines, temples, palaces, squares, ageless sculptures and legends associated with the city make Kathmandu in every way a living museum. Within the city, there are as many temples as there are houses and as many statues as inhabitants.



Russian Federation ~ Member of the LHC since 2001 ~

Kazan was founded in the year of 1005 as a military fortress and trading point of the Volga Bulgaria State which was the largest medieval state of Eastern Europe. By the second half of the 16th century, Kazan became one of the most important cities in Eastern Europe. The city is located between Europe and Asia, where the Silk Road had crossed. Kazan became the capital of Tatar Autonomic Republic from 1920, and now is the capital of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russian federation.



Ukraine ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Kiev is situated on the banks of the Dnieper River and has a colorful history of nearly 1,500 years. In the 10th century Kiev's Prince Vladimir introduced Christianity as the state religion, and by the 11th century, Kiev had become one of the largest and finest cities in the Christian world.



Lithuania ~ Member of the LHC since 2017~

Klaipėda is third biggest city in Lithuania. The town of Klaipėda (Memel) was founded in 1252. Klaipėda is a unique Lithuanian city by virtue of its colorful and turbulent history and also because the Old Town‘s architectural style is similar to many western European cities with which it had close links.
Klaipėda, with its rich history, traditions, cultural life, unique architecture, has become an outstanding tourism attraction centre.



Republic of Turkey ~ Member of the LHC since 1997 ~

The City of Konya became the center of culture, art and politics in 12th or 13th century. Many Islamic scientists, artists and architect were invited to Konya and they contributed to the spread of these knowledge. Thus Konya prospered as a center of Islamic world. Many theologocal school and mosque were built in these days.

The Host City of the 11th
World Conference of Historical Cities in 2008



Japan ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Kyoto was the capital of Japan for 1,000 years until the transfer of government to Tokyo after the Imperial Restoration in 1868. Kyoto is rich with architectural masterpieces and artistic works. About 20% of Japan's National Treasures are in Kyoto. In 1994 seventeen historic monuments of ancient Kyoto were designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

The Host City of the 4th
World Conference of Historical Cities in 1994

The Host City of the 1st
World Conference of Historical Cities in 1987



Islamic Republic of Pakistan ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Lahore, Pakistan's second largest city and the capital of the State of Punjab, lies on a plain made fertile by the Ravi River. A circular road that marks the position of Mugal era castle walls encloses the old city, where mosques and shops along the city's narrow street continue to retain their ancient appearance. There are many legacies of the Mughal era in the city.



Portuguese Republic ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Originally a harbor city constructed by the Phoenicians around 1200 B.C., Lisbon owes its name (Olissipus) to the legendary Greek hero Ulysses, who is said to have disembarked at the harbor of what is today Lisbon. Among the city's many historical sites, the tomb of the explorer Vasco da Gama is located in the Jeronimos Monastery.




Republic of Slovenia ~ Member of the LHC since 2013 ~

Ljubljana is a city standing at the crossroads of European history and culture, where, over centuries, influences from the west and east, north and south have mixed. It lies at the juncture where Romanic, Germanic and Slavic worlds meet. We can argue that it is this crucial position that - through the centuries - provided for extremely rich cultural heritage dating back to prehistoric times and is today reflected in the vibrant tempo and cultural life of the city. Prehistoric heritage of Ljubljana’s marsh is a cultural heritage inscribed on the UNESCO list. A unique place in the history of Ljubljana is the period of Roman Emona. (Photography by T.Jeseničnik)



Ukraine ~ Member of the LHC since 2008 ~

Lutsk is the capital of Volyn Oblast located in north-western Ukraine. The City is known as the oldest city in Ukraine. Its history dates back to 1085. The historical role of the city is that it was the last capital of Volyn-Galician Rus,a souh residence of Lithuanian grand dukes in 14th to 15th century.



Arab Republic of Egypt ~ Member of the LHC since 2013 ~

The modern town of Luxor is the site of the famous city of Thebes, (Waset in ancient Egyptian) the city of a hundred gates. Luxor city dates back to the pre-history eras. It is one of the most iconic monumental cities in the world, a city of civilization; its roots are deeply entrenched in history witnessing the splendor of man's arts and science 7 thousand years ago. Luxor has frequently been characterized as the "world's greatest open air museum", as the ruins of the temple complexes at Karnak and Luxor stand within the modern city. Immediately opposite, across the River Nile, lie the monuments, temples and tombs on the West Bank Necropolis, which include the Valley of the Kings and Valley of the Queens.



Ukraine ~ Member of the LHC since 2008 ~

The historic city center of Lviv is on the UNESCO World Heritage List and the City is one of the cultural, educational and historical centers not only of Ukraine but Europe as well. Due to its unique geopolitical location, the City has always attracted prominent, charismatic personalities and the exclusive atmosphere of Galychyna inspired them to greater accomplishments.



Commonwealth of Australia ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Melbourne was laid out in 1837 with a complete network of lanes and arcades which gave this city so much of its charm. The city's cable car system, introduced in 1855, has developed into one of the largest and most modern tram networks in the world. Melbourne is famous for its Victorian architecture and its parks and gardens, with over one quarter of the inner city set aside as park land.


Mexico City

United Mexican States ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

The name Mexico was given to the city in memory of the Aztec god of war, Mextli. The nation's history has revolved around the city since the days of Tenochtitlan, the city founded by the Aztecs in 1325. Mexico City functions as the center of the nation's economy and plays a leading role in most industries.



Republic of Belarus ~ Member of the LHC since 2008 ~

Minsk is the capital and largest city in Belarus and the city is one of the most ancient and beautiful cities in Europe. Its cultural, historical and architectural heritage counts more than nine hundred years. During this time the city has witnessed many historic events, many a time the city has been exposed to ruins and built anew.



French Republic ~ Member of the LHC since 1996 ~

Founded in 985 AD, Montpellier has since the 12th century been famous for its medical faculty. It has always been a cosmopolitan city, open to the sea and influences from all over the Mediterranean. It has numerous private houses dating to the 17th and 18th centuries. Later developments blend harmoniously with the old town; sensitive town planning, an emphasis on culture and the quality of life, a dynamic Technopolis.

The Host City of the 7th
World Conference of Historical Cities in 2000



Canada ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Founded in 1642, Montreal went on to become a major North-American metropolitan city. A key element of its urban heritage is the historic city center, called Old Montreal, which was described in the New York Times as one of the most attractive 18th- and 19th-century neighborhoods anywhere on the continent, where you can easily trace the city's evolution from a trading post to a French town to a British city to today's modern, French-dominated metropolis.

The Host City of the 8th
World Conference of Historical Cities in 2003



Georgia ~ Member of the LHC since 2010 ~

Mtskheta is located approximately 20 kilometers north-west of present capital of Georgia, Tbilisi. In the beginning of third century BC the King Farnaoz founded the Georgian kingdom and declared the Mtskheta as the capital of the country and created the alphabet. Mtskheta played an important role as a political, religious and cultural center of the kingdom more than 800 years.



Japan ~ Member of the LHC since 2013 ~

The City of Naha is the capital of Okinawa Prefecture, and also its political, economic and cultural center. Located along the East China Sea, it has long been a port serving as an interface between Japan and overseas countries. While nurturing its own culture, Naha has been influenced by both Japan and Asian countries, and as a result created the unique culture of the Ryukyu Kingdom. Shikina-en garden, the ruins of Shurijo Castle, Sonohyan-utaki Stone Gate and Tama-ryo Mausoleum, designated as Special Places of Scenic Beauty by the National government, were registered as World Heritage sites under the appelation “Gusuku Sites and Related Properties of the Ryukyu Kingdom” in 2000. Thus, many cultural properties with historical value remain in this wonderful city, reminding us of the glorious era of the Ryukyu Kingdom.



People's Republic of China ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Nanjing is the capital of Jiangsu Province. The city boasts a long history and a rich culture. The history of Nanjing began in 472 B.C., when the king of Yue Kingdom conquered the Wu Kingdom and built up the city southwest of Zhonghua Gate. Since the third century, ten dynasties established their regimes in this city and left behind brilliant cultural relics.



Japan ~ Member of the LHC since 1997 ~

The city of Nara was established as the capital named Heijokyo in the year 710 and has been the cradle of the Japanese arts and the essence of culture. Nara, as an international cultural tourism city, can encounter the rich elegant ambience of the Tempyo culture which flourished as the eastern terminal point of the Silk Road. Nara has been registered with the World Heritage of UNESCO and engaged in restoring the constructed monument, which will reflect to the future.

The Host City of the 12th
World Conference of Historical Cities in 2010



Islamic Republic of Iran ~ Member of the LHC since 2015 ~

Located on the Silk-Road, Nayshabur is one of the most ancient cities in Iran. Recent archaeological discoveries have shown that Nayshabur participated in trade with the Indus River Valley in Pakistan and part of Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium BC. The tomb of Omar Khayyám, who was born in Nayshabur in 1048 and is a well-known Persian mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, and poet, is located within Nayshabur.



Republic of Cyprus ~ Member of the LHC since 2006 ~

Nicosia, the capital of the republic of Cyprus for the last 800 years, is the seat of government and the island’s administrative, political economic and cultural center. Nicosia is still the only divided capital in Europe and the buffer zone cuts the city from east to west and runs through its historic center, the walled city of Nicosia. Nicosia carries a history spanning 6,000 years.



Republic of Serbia ~ Member of the LHC since 2009 ~

Nis is the second largest city in the Country located in south-eastern Serbia. Nis is one of the oldest cities in the Balkans and has from ancient times been considered a gateway between the East and the West. Nis is also notable as the birthplace of Constantine the Great, the first Roman Emperor who was born in 272.



The United Kingdom ~ Member of the LHC since 2007 ~

The history of Norwich goes back to the 8th century. By the time the Norman French invaded the City in 1066, it was one of the most highly populated cities in England and became the location for a Royal Castle - it has been described as "the finest secular building of its period in Europe". In 1096, the Normans commenced construction of the Cathedral which remains one of the most complete Norman building in Europe.


Norwood Payneham and St Peters

Commonwealth of Australia ~ Member of the LHC since 2007 ~

Norwood Payneham and St Peters is located in the suburbs of Adelaide and has a rich and distinctive history with a long tradition of historical firsts at state and national levels including the first municipal town council and the first election by secret ballot in Australia in 1853. Many of South Australia's influential leaders have lived in the City and the impact has been seen across disciplines that encompass politics, the arts, religion, etc.



Ukraine ~ Member of the LHC since 2008 ~

Odessa is the fourth largest city in Ukraine. The city is a mix of many nationalities and ethnic groups. Mixture of ethnic cultures determined its unique habits and formed urban cultural surroundings which differ by its respect for traditions of different peoples, openness to cultural initiatives from Western and Eastern partners.



Republic of Turkey ~ Member of the LHC since 2008 ~

Osmangazi is the biggest city of Bursa Province which is the fourth biggest province in Turkey. With 700,000 populations, Osmangazi is the biggest city of Bursa and the 8th biggest city of Turkey as well. The City is known as “the first capital of the Ottomans” and has the greatest part of the Ottoman city features and is on the point of conveying past to future with approximately 1,800 registered historical buildings.



French Republic ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Since the time of Henry IV, the design and scale of Paris has been a masterpiece of harmony for 400 years. Among the city's many enlightened design concepts are a series of regulations that determine the height of buildings according to the width of the street they stand on. The Marais District and the Seine River have been added by UNESCO to the list of World Heritage Sites.



Czech Republic ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Due to its 1,100 years of development, historic Prague constitutes a unique urban and architectural phenomenon. The city boasts all architectural styles from the Romanesque, Gothic and Renaissance styles to all phases of the Baroque period. Over 2,800 cultural monuments protected by law are currently registered throughout the territory of the city of Prague.



Canada ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

The Historical District of Quebec City was included on UNESCO's World Heritage List in 1986. Every year four million visitors come to Quebec for its well-renowned European historical character, its highly attended summer, winter and medieval festivals, its spectacular geographical panorama and outdoor recreational activities as well.



Republic of Latvia ~ Member of the LHC since 2007 ~

Riga is famous for the beautiful harbor, called "Baltic Pearl" and its old town, "the Historic center of Riga" is a World Heritage Site, inscribed upon the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1997. Since the landing of Bishop Albert in 1201, Riga had been invaded by various countries, so that the City has the numbers of architectural style including Romanesque, Baroque and Gothic. The City is described as the Huge Museum of Architecture.



Republic of Italy ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Rome was founded by Romulus in 753 B.C. Rome's history and monuments make it a unique city. Millennia of history have left behind a heritage of arts, culture and architecture in Rome. Many historical remains have survived in the old city, such as the Palatine Hill associated with ancient Rome, the Coliseum Amphitheater and the Caracalla baths.



Turkey ~ Member of the LHC since 2011 ~

Sanliurfa is located in south-eastern Turkey, and the capital of Sanliurfa Province. The history of Sanliurfa is recorded from the 4th century BC, but may date back to 9000 BC, when there is ample evidence for the surrounding sites at Duru, Harran and Nevali Cori. It was one of several cities in the Euphrates-Tigris basin, the cradle of the Mesopotamian civilization. Sanliurfa was conquered repeatedly throughout history, and has been dominated by many civilizations.s


Santiago de Compostela

Spain ~ Member of the LHC since 1996 ~

Political and administrative Capital of Galician Region, founded around Apostle James' tomb in 9th century, is archbishop's seat. Declared a World Heritage site in 1985. It is the most important touristic and cultural center in northwest Spain. The goal of the Saint-James Way was also declared a World Heritage site in 1993.



Bosnia and Herzegovina ~ Member of the LHC since 2009 ~

Sarajevo is the capital city and largest urban center of the country. Although settlement in the area stretches back to prehistoric times, the modern city arose as an Ottoman stronghold in the 15th century. The city is famous for its traditional religious diversity, with adherents of Islam, Orthodoxy, Catholicism and Judaism coexisting there for centuries.



Islamic Republic of Iran ~ Member of the LHC since 2018 ~

Semnan city, the capital of Semnan province of Iran, used to be a part of Qumis state, which was one of the sixteen divisions of Achaemenid Dynasty. It is situated along one of the major corridors of the ancient Silk Road, bordering with mountains in north and desert in south. Its population is 200,000 who speak Semnani language.
The presence of a major Middle Palaeolithic open-air archeologic site at Mirak, 12 km south of Semnan, is an evidence of Semnan’s long history. Its main attractions include the Old Bazaar, Arg Gate, Imam Mosque, Karvansarai, histoic bath houses, and a unique historic water distribution system, consisting of several ab anbars and ice-houses, which is still vital.



Republic of Azerbaijan ~ Member of the LHC since 2008 ~

Sheki is the 4th largest city in the Country located in north Azerbaijan. Its history dates back to 2700years ago of the Bronze Age. There are traes of the large-scale setlemens in the City. Sheki has been also known as the city of silk industry since old ages.



Islamic Republic of Iran ~ Member of the LHC since 2014 ~

Being the capital of Fars Province, the center of Iranian identity, Shiraz is located in southwest Iran. The earliest reference to the city is on Elamite clay tablets which date back to 2000 B.C. Recent excavations attribute early settlements in the plain of Shiraz to 6000 B.C. Shiraz was chosen as Iran’s capital several times, the last one being during Zand Dynasty (1749-1779), the time when many architectural masterpieces (Karim Khan Citadel, Vakil Bazar, Vakil Mosque, etc,) were built. The literary center of Iran - thanks to the world-known poets like Hafez and Sa’adi - boasts a long tradition of art, with its specific painting style flourishing in the 14th century. Numerous handicrafts produced in the city (Khatam and Monabbat, Ghalamzani, seven-colored tiles, to mention just a few) as well as architectural masterpieces such as the UNESCO-inscribed Eram Garden reflect the rich, deep-rooted cultural-artistic tradition in the city. Shiraz is also noted for its quality higher education and is a major health hub in the region, with a prestigious reputation for organ transplant beyond the Asian countries.



French Republic ~ Member of the LHC since 2010 ~

Located on the Rhine, where France and Germany meet each other, and very close to Switzerland, Belgium and Luxembourg, Strasbourg is one of the most dynamic regions in Europe. The historic district known as "Grande-Ile" in Strasbourg offers a unique urban landscape characteristic of middle Europe and a unique example of Rhine domestic architecture from the 15th to18th century.



Republic of Korea ~ Member of the LHC since 2014 ~

Suwon, located in the southern part of the capital Seoul, is the center city of politics, the economy, transportation, culture, education and sports in Gyeonggi-do Province and houses Samsung Electronics, the World’s largest IT company. “Hwaseong Fortress,” the symbol and pride of Suwon, was built in the late Joseon Dynasty and is considered the best of the oriental fortresses characterized by the grandiosity of the East and the splendor and practicality of the West. The site was designated a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage in 1997.



Islamic Republic of Iran ~ Member of the LHC since 2018 ~

Tabriz, located in the northwestern part of Iran with 4,000 years of history, is one of the most ancient cities in Iran and the world. It has been the capital of Iran for 185 years in history and was the 4th biggest city of the world in 1500 AD. Standing on the main connecting road between Asia and Europe, with its world heritage "Great Bazaar", Tabriz metropolis is the administrative, communicational, historical, industrial and cultural hub of excellence in the region. The great bazaar of Tabriz, with its Islamic architecture is the biggest brick-made roofed bazaar of the world and was the heart of the Silk Road in the past.



Chinese Taipei ~ Member of the LHC since 2016 ~

Taichung City is located in the center of west side of Taiwan Island. Its name also derives from this geographic fact which means “the middle of Taiwan Island” in Chinese. Due to its geographic location, Taichung has a pleasant climate, resulting in several prehistorical cultural sites such as the Niumatou Site and Huilai Site. In the 17th century, Taichung was once a trade and exchange center. From the 1920s, the “Taiwan Cultural Association,” which is considered to be the spark for the rise of the enlightenment movement. They chose Taichung as their base of operations, which gathered a lot of intellectuals. Taichung therefore gradually came to be called “the city of culture,” and has numerous historical sites and former residences of those intellectuals. Currently Taichung has more than 100 historical sites and buildings, many of which have turned into the highlights of Taichung after revitalization.



Chinese Taipei  ~ Member of the LHC since 2012 ~

Tainan is the fifth largest city and was the first city to be developed on Taiwan Island. The areas along the Tai River were inhabited by people long before the Dutch rule in the 17th century. It was the capital of Taiwan prefecture under the rule of the Qing Dynasty until 1887. Now it is the homeland of many cultural heritages and has some 300 ancient sanctuaries, from the island's first Confucian temple to its first Taoist temple.



Republic of Uzbekistan ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Tashkent means "the city of stone" in Turkish. Owing to the special characteristics of the people, made up of numerous ethnic groups and religions, it is often called "the city of friendship and brotherly love." As an important Central Asian transportation and trade center, Tashkent has been an oasis of the Silk Road for the past 2,000 years.



Uzbekistan ~ Member of the LHC since 2011 ~

Termez is a city in southern Uzbekistan near the border with Afghanistan. The city is an administrative, economic and cultural centre of Surkhan-Darya province. Termez, built at the crossroads of the Great Silk Road, from the earliest times served as a link between North and South, East and West. For a long time various religions coexisted here.



Republic of Tunisia ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

The Medina, or old city of Tunis, was founded in the late 7th century and grew up around the Zitouna Mosque. During the Hafsid dynasty (1207-1574), Tunis became a leading city of the Arab and Mediterranean worlds. Today Medina shelters historic buildings spanning 600 years or Arab and Turkish endowment.


Ulan Bator

Mongolia ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Ulan Bator was called Ikh Khuree (1706-1911), Niisei Khuree (1911-1923) and finally Ulan Bator since 1924. Ulan Bator means "Red Hero." Ulan Bator is situated on the bank of the river Tuul and is surrounded by the beautiful foothills of the Khangai mountain range with the Bogd Khan Mountainfacing the city.



India ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Varanasi is acknowledged as one of the most ancient cities in the world and the foremost sacred city of pilgrimage in India. The origin of the city is lost in antiquity and only mythological stories exist prior to the 6th century B.C., when the Lord Buddha preached his first sermon just outside the city to his first five disciples.


Veliko Turnovo

Republic of Bulgaria ~ Member of the LHC since 2009 ~

Veliko Tunovo is a city in north central Bulgaria and an important administrative, economic, educational and cultural center of Northern Bulgaria. The city was flourished as the capital of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom in 12th century. It is known that ancient travelers wrote about the town as "the second after Constantinople" in its beauty and might.



Republic of Italy ~ Member of the LHC since 2013 ~

Founded in the 5th century and spread over 118 small islands, Venice is known as the "city on water": over half of the 415 k㎡ of the Municipality’s area comprises its Lagoon, while the historical centre – the "fish" as it is widely known – is only 8 k㎡ wide. Venice's Lagoon is one of the oldest examples of the complex relationship between man and nature, and its stunning landscape harbours great treasures of art and architecture. UNESCO included Venice in 1987 on its list of World Heritage sites. The UN, for its part, nominated Venice in 2011 as a "model city for resilience in the preservation of cultural heritage". The Municipality of Venice has just under 300,000 inhabitants: 60,000 live in the historical centre's "fish" and another 30,000 or so live on the outlying islands of the Lagoon. Venice is a tourist city. Visitors in 2013 exceeded 15 million, of which about ten million spent at least one night in its many hotels and B&Bs.



Republic of Austria ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Vienna is the capital of Austria with a history of more than 2,000 years. Throughout its history, Vienna has been an important point of interchange between German cultures to the west and Slavic and Balkan cultures to the east. Vienna is also known as the city of music whose name is strongly associated with many great composers such as Haydn, Mozart, Schubert, Brahms and Johann Strauss.



Philippines ~ Member of the LHC since 2017 ~

Vigan is the capital city of the Province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. Established in the 16th century, Vigan is the best-preserved example in Asia of a planned Spanish colonial town. Its unique architecture reflects the coming together of cultural elements from elsewhere in the Philippines, from China, and those from Europe and Mexico, resulting in a unique culture and townscape that have no parallels anywhere in East and South-East Asia.



People's Republic of China ~ Member of the LHC since 2016 ~

Wuxi is known as the Shining Pearl of Taihu Lake. It is located in the Southeast of Jiangsu Province. Wuxi is nationally well-known as the land of rice and fish. In the early 1970s, Wuxi’s township enterprises led the way nationwide. With a history of more than 3000 years, it is also the birthplace of China’s national commerce and industry.



People's Republic of China ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Xian became the capital of Zhou around 1100 B.C. and continued for the next 2,000 years to be the capital for 11 Chinese dynasties. As the greatest achievement of the Tang Dynasty, Xian was systematically planned on the basis of a regular street grid inside the walls of a castle. Today Xian is drawing world-wide attention as a business and scientific center.

The Host City of the 5th
World Conference of Historical Cities in 1996



Union of Myanmar ~ Member of the LHC since 1996 ~

The origin of Yangon can be traced back to the time of King Okkalapa who built the city of Okklapa on the present site and the famous Shwedagon Pagoda in the 6th century B.C. From the 11th century, the King became known as Dagon and existed as an obscure fishing village, in 1755, King Alaungpaya conquer lower Myanmar and renamed the city as Yangon meaning "end of strife".



People's Republic of China ~ Member of the LHC since 2009 ~

Located in the middle part of Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China and the confluence of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal and Yangtze River, Yangzhou has been the hub of water transportation and prospered as the center of business and culture. As one of the famous ancient cities of China, Yangzhou has a history of nearly 2500 years. Numbers of gardens and the old townscape are well-preserved in the City.



Islamic Republic of Iran ~ Member of the LHC since 2014 ~

Yazd is the capital of Yazd Province, located in the center of Iran. The city has a history of over 3,000 years, dating back to the time of the Median Empire, when it was known as Ysatis (or Issatis). The city was definitely a Zoroastrian center during Sassanid times. Presently the dominant religion is Islam, but Zoroastrians are still living there. Yazd is of foremost importance as a center of Persian architecture. Because of its desert climate, it has one of the largest networks of Qanats (Persian invented water tunnels) in the world. The city was visited by Marco Polo in 1272, who remarked on the city's fine silk-weaving industry.



Republic of Indonesia ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Yogyakarta became the Kingdom of Yogyakarta in 1755, with the construction of the Pangeran Mangkubumi (The Sultan's Palace) for the founder and the first king of the kingdom. As the city's oldest structure, with its origins in the philosophical principles of Javanese culture, the palace has remained the center of the city's government and the center of Javanese culture.



Republic of Croatia ~ Member of the LHC since 1994 ~

Situated in the south of Central Europe, Zagreb developed on the crossroads between Eastern and Western Europe and between Northern Europe and the Mediterranean. The city flourished in the 13th and 14th centuries, growing into the major commercial center of northern Croatia. Since the 18th century, Zagreb has developed continually as the political, cultural and economic capital of Croatia.



People's Republic of China ~ Member of the LHC since 2004 ~

Zhengzhou, the capital city of Henan province, is located in Central China, to the north of which runs the Yellow River where is the birth place of civilization. Zhengzhou is the political, economic and cultural center of Henan province. Meanwhile, Zhengzhou is famous as historical and cultural city. The citadel from “sho” period, about 3,600 years ago, is still remained within the city. By connecting tourism, Zhengzhou currently works hard to develop excellent tourism routes with historical culture.